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高一高二 ▏非谓语动词重难点,一篇全搞定,期末考必备!
非谓语动词归于英语语法的三座大山之一,不管在考试中仍是平常的英语阅览中所起的效果都无足轻重。可是,关于这么重要的语法内容,许多同学们却怎样学都学不透,要么彻底不明白、做题时全赖“感觉”;要么一知半解,能越过则越过。其实,只需办法正确,遇到有关非谓语动词的标题时就会方便的解决,更令人高兴的是,在平常的英语阅览中再也不需要绕道而行了!
一. 非谓语动词的意义
非谓语动词首先是一种动词方式,其次是这种动词方式不能做谓语,归纳这两点,咱们将其叫做非谓语动词。
二. 非谓语动词的方式
非谓语动词包含四种方式,即不定式、动名词、现在分词和曩昔分词。其间,每种方式依照发生时刻和主被迫又包含不同的子方式。详细如下:
1. 不定式
①基本方式:to do
②被迫式:to be done
③进行式:to be doing
④完结时:to have done
⑤完结被迫式:to have been done
⑥完结进行式:to have been doing
例如:
The teacher told us to do morning exercises .
教师让咱们做早操。
The car to be bought is for his sister.
要买的这辆车是给他的姐姐的。
She pretended to be reading when the teacher came into the classroom.
教师进来时,她伪装正在读书。
The thief is said to have escaped.
听说小偷现已逃跑了。
The thief is said to have been arrested.
听说小偷现已被抓住了。
She is said to have been working in the factory over the last 20 years.
听说在曩昔的20年里,她一直在这家工厂作业。
2. 动名词
①基本方式:doing
②被迫式:being done
③完结式:having done
④完结被迫式:having been done
例如:
Travelling in space by ordinary people will be common in the future.
在未来,一般人在太空游览将会是遍及的作业。
Freddy and his band could go nowhere without being followed by their fans.
Freddy和他的乐队到哪里都被他们的粉丝跟着。
I have no idea of his having done such a thing against you.
我不知道他做过这样一件违反你的作业。
Many customers complain of having been given short weight at that shop.
许多顾客诉苦在那家商铺被缺斤少两过。
3. 现在分词
①基本方式:doing
②被迫式:being done
③完结式:having done
④完结被迫式:having been done
He sat there,reading a newspaper.
他坐在那里,读着一张报纸。
The area being studied may be rich in coal.
这个正在被研讨的当地或许富含煤。
Having finished my homework,I began to watch TV.
完结作业后,我开端看电视。
Having been told many times,she still can't remember it.
现已被告知了许屡次,她依然记不住。
4. 曩昔分词:done
及物动词的曩昔分词表明被迫或完结;不及物动词的曩昔分词表明自动或完结。
polluted river 被污染的河流
fallen leaves 落叶
留意:非谓语动词自身不能表明现在和曩昔。非谓语动词表明进行、将来和完结时是相关于谓语动作来说的:和谓语动作同时发生表明进行;发生在谓语动作之后表明将来;发生在谓语动作之前表明完结。
三. 非谓语动词的效果
非谓语动词除掉不能做谓语之外,其它一切成分都能够做。详细如下。
1. 不定式:做主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语和补语。
To learn a foreign language is difficult .
学会一门外语是很难的。
It’s easy to see their aunt.
很简单见到他们的姑姑。
Tom wanted to have a cup of beer.
汤姆想要喝杯啤酒。
His wish is to be a driver.
他的希望是当一名司机。
I have nothing to say.
我没有什么可说的。
The teacher told us to do morning exercises .
教师让咱们做早操。
They went to see their aunt.
他们去见他们的姑姑。
2. 动名词:做主语、宾语、表语、定语和补语。
Learning English is very difficult .
学英语十分困难。
I enjoy dancing.
我喜爱跳舞。
I have got used to living in the country.
我现已习惯了住乡村。
His job is driving a bus.
他的作业是开车。
3. 现在分词:做表语、定语、状语和补语。
The story is interesting.
这个故事风趣。
He sat there,reading a newspaper.
他坐在那里,读着一张报纸。
The area being studied may be rich in coal.
这个正在被研讨的当地或许富含煤。
He saw the thief stealing some money from the bank.
他看到小偷正在从银行偷钱。
4. 曩昔分词:做表语、定语、状语和补语。
He is interested in the news.
他对这则音讯很感兴趣。
polluted river
被污染的河流
Given more time,I can do my work better.
假如再被多给些时刻,我会把作业做得更好。
I found my watch stolen.
我发现我的手表被偷了。
四. 非谓语动词重、疑、难点。
1. 须用省去to 的不定式作宾补的11个动词。
五看
两听
三使
一感觉
依据谐音记忆法,咱们能够记做“吾看两厅三室一感觉”。
例如:
I saw a big bird fly over the roof of the house yesterday.
昨日,我看到一只大鸟飞过了房顶。
留意:以上11个动词,也能够接现在分词和曩昔分词作宾补,但在时刻和语态上会有改变,咱们以see为例来区别一下。
see sb. do sth. 看到或人做了某事
see sb. doing sth. 看到或人正在做某事
see sb./sth. done 看到或人/某物被......
I see him make the phone call.
我看到他打了电话。
I see him making a phone call.我看到他正在打电话。
We often see him surrounded by much work.
咱们常常看见他被很多的作业包围着.
2.只接不定式作宾语的25个常用动词
want、would like、wish、help、hope、learn、manage、offer、plan、afford、agree、arrange、ask、beg、care、choose、decide、demand、determine、expect、fear、prepare、pretend、promise、refuse
3. 只接动名词作宾语的28个常用动词
practice、consider、enjoy、finish、give up、imagine、keep、put off、risk、suggest、admit、advise、allow、appreciate、avoid、delay、deny、discuss、dislike、escape、excuse、fancy、forbid、mention、 mind、miss、permit、prohibit
4. 既可接不定式也可接动名词,但意义彻底不同的8个动词
remember to do sth. 记住要做某事
remember doing sth. 记住做过某事
forget to do sth. 忘掉去做某事
forget doing sth. 忘掉做过某事
regret to do sth. 惋惜要做某事
regret doing sth. 懊悔/抱愧做过某事
try to do sth. 尽力做某事
try doing sth. 尝试做某事
mean to do sth. 方案做某事
mean doing sth. 意味着做某事
can’t help to do sth. 不能协助做某事
can’t help doing sth. 情不自禁做某事
go on to do sth. 持续做另一件事
go on doing sth. 持续做同一件事
stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事
stop doing sth. 停下正在做的作业
5. 一切非谓语动词的完结方式都不能做定语,如to have done、to have been done、to have been doing、having done 和 having been done。
五. 非谓语动词的解题过程
1. 判别非谓语动作的逻辑主语,以此来确认它表明自动意义仍是被迫意义。
①非谓动词做定语时,其逻辑主语是它所润饰的名词或代词。
②非谓语动作做状语时,其逻辑主语是语句主语。
③非谓语动作做宾补时,其逻辑主语是它前面的宾语。
2. 判别非谓语动作与谓语动作的先后联系。
和谓语动作同时发生表明进行,使用以上说到的进行式;发生在谓语动作之后表明将来,使用;发生在谓语动作之前表明完结,使用。
例如下面几题:
_____ all my money on the car, I can’t afford a holiday with my friend this summer.
A. Spending
B. Spend
C. To spend
D. Having spent
D “现已花了一切的钱买车”做时刻状语,所以其逻辑主语应是语句主语“我”。“我”与“花钱”之间应该是自动联系,而且“花钱”发生在谓语动作“can’t afford a holiday”之前,所以非谓语动词使用自动和完结的意义,故选“D”。
An exercise method to improve strength and balance is becoming popular in the United States.
A. designing
B. designed
C. to be designed
D. being designed
B “规划”在这里是定语,润饰其前的“an exercise method”,所以其逻辑主语应该是它的被润饰词“an exercise method”,所以表被迫。由于“规划”这个动词在这里自身现已完结,所以使用表明被迫完结意义的designed。
Open your heart, and you’ll make yourself better ______.
A. known
B. knowing
C. to know
D. know
A ”知道,了解“在这里做宾补,所以其逻辑主语是其前的宾语”yourself“,”yourself“和”知道,了解“在这里是被迫联系,所以挑选曩昔分词”known“。
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